Chickenpox pathophysiology

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aravind Reddy Kothagadi M.B.B.S[2]

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Overview

Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease contracted by the inhalation of aerosolized nasopharyngeal secretions or through direct contact with the vesicles from an infected host. Chicken pox has an incubation period of 10-21 days. Viral proliferation occurs in regional lymph nodes of the upper respiratory tract leading to viremia. Viremia is characterized by diffuse viral invasion of capillary endothelial cells and the epidermis. VZV infection of cells of the malpighian layer produces both intercellular and intracellular edema, resulting in the characteristic vesicles.

Pathophysiology

Chickenpox is contracted by the inhalation of aerosolized nasopharyngeal secretions from an infected host. The highly contagious nature of VZV explains the epidemics of chickenpox that spread through schools, as one child who is infected quickly spreads the virus to many classmates.

Transmission

Incubation Period

  • The infectivity period begins 48 hours prior to the appearance of the rash and lasts till crusts appear.

Dissemination

Pathogenesis

Genetics

There is no genetic predisposition associated with chickenpox. Similarities in sibling response to varicella vaccine are supportive of the hypothesis that genetic factors play a role in the antibody response to the varicella vaccine.[4]

Associated Conditions

Gross Pathology

Rash findings

The typical rash in chickenpox may show the following findings:

  • Superficial
  • Unilocular
  • Umblicated
  • Area of inflammation around rash
  • Pleomorphism (papules, vesicles and crusts may be seen simultaneously at the same area)

Microscopic Pathology

Rash findings

Skin lesions in chickenpox may show the following findings:

  • Multi-nucleated giant cells
  • Steel-gray nuclei with accentuation of nucleoplasm at their periphery
  • Necrosis
  • Acantholysis
  • Vascular dilation

References

  1. Straus SE, Ostrove JM, Inchauspé G, Felser JM, Freifeld A, Croen KD; et al. (1988). "NIH conference. Varicella-zoster virus infections. Biology, natural history, treatment, and prevention". Ann Intern Med. 108 (2): 221–37. PMID 2829675.
  2. Leclair JM, Zaia JA, Levin MJ, Congdon RG, Goldmann DA (1980). "Airborne transmission of chickenpox in a hospital". N Engl J Med. 302 (8): 450–3. doi:10.1056/NEJM198002213020807. PMID 7351951.
  3. Heininger U, Seward JF (2006). "Varicella". Lancet. 368 (9544): 1365–76. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69561-5. PMID 17046469.
  4. Klein NP, Fireman B, Enright A, Ray P, Black S, Dekker CL (2007). "A role for genetics in the immune response to the varicella vaccine". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26 (4): 300–5. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000257454.74513.07. PMID 17414391.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Muthu, Valliappan; M.B., Adarsh; Kumar, P. Sathish; Varma, Subhash; Malhotra, Pankaj (2013). "Varicella zoster virus-related pancytopenia". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 17 (12): e1264. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2013.06.010. ISSN 1201-9712.
  6. Johnston NR (2010). "Red eye in chickenpox: varicella-related acute anterior uveitis in a child". BMJ Case Rep. 2010. doi:10.1136/bcr.01.2010.2678. PMC 3029245. PMID 22778248.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 "Public Health Image Library (PHIL)".

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