Chickenpox differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Michael Maddaleni, B.S. João André Alves Silva, M.D. [2] Aravind Reddy Kothagadi M.B.B.S[3]

Overview

Chickenpox must be differentiated from various rash-causing conditions like Coxsackievirus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), measles, rubella, Rocky mountain spotted fever and syphilis.

Differentiating Chickenpox from other Diseases

Chickenpox must be differentiated from other diseases presenting with diffuse papulovesicular rash in a febrile patient. The various conditions that should be differentiated from chickenpox include:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Common conditions to be differentiated from chickenpox:

Common Conditions Features
Coxsackievirus
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Kawasaki disease
Measles
Syphilis It commonly presents with gneralized systemic symptoms such as malaise, fatigue, headache and fever. Skin eruptions may be subtle and asymptomatic It is classically described as:
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus
Meningococcemia
Meningitis
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Molluscum contagiosum
  • The lesions are commonly flesh-colored, dome-shaped and pearly in appearance. They are often 1-5 millimeters in diameter, with an umblicated center. Generally not painful, but they may itch or become irritated. Picking or scratching the lesions may lead to further infection or scarring. In about 10% of the cases, eczema develops around the lesions. They may occasionally be complicated by secondary bacterial infections.
Mononucleosis

Less common conditions to be differentiated from chickenpox:

Less Common Diseases Features
Atypical measles
Parvovirus B19
Rickettsial pox
Toxic erythema
Monkeypox
  • The presentation is similar to smallpox, although it is often a milder form, with fever, headache, myalgia, back pain, swollen lymph nodes, a general feeling of discomfort, and exhaustion. Within 1 to 3 days (sometimes longer) after the appearance of fever, the patient develops a papular rash, often first on the face. The lesions usually develop through several stages before crusting and falling off.
Rat-bite fever
  • It commonly presents with fever, chills, open sore at the site of the bite and rash, which may show red or purple plaques.
Scarlet fever

Differentiating chickenpox infection in immunocompromised host

Varicella Zoster virus infection is common among immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for other fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. It should be differentiated from the following diseases, which may present as confusion, fever and headache in immunocompromised patients:

Disease Differentiating signs and symptoms Differentiating tests
CNS lymphoma[8]
Disseminated tuberculosis[9]
Aspergillosis[10]
Cryptococcosis
Chagas disease[11]
CMV infection[12]
HSV infection[13]
Varicella Zoster infection[14]
Brain abscess[15][16]
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy[17]

Oral lesions to be differentiated from chicken pox:

Oral lesions caused by chickenpox must be differentiated from other diseases presenting with pain and blistering within the mouth (gingivostomatitis and glossitis). The differentials include:

Disease Presentation Risk Factors Diagnosis Affected Organ Systems Important features Picture
Coxsackie virus
  • Symptomatic treatment
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease
Chicken pox
  • Conjunctival symptoms:
  • Catarrhal symptoms:
  • Characteristic spots on the trunk appearing in two or three waves
  • Itching
Chickenpox
Measles Koplick spots (Measles)
Herpangina
  • Attendance at a kindergarten/child care center
  • Contact with herpangina cases
  • Residence in rural areas
  • Overcrowding
  • Poor hygiene
  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Skin
  • Oral Cavity
  • Characteristic exanthem- Punctate macule which evolve over a period of 24 hours to 2-4mm erythematous papules which vesiculate, and then centrally ulcerate.
  • The lesions are usually small in number, and evolve rapidly. The lesions are seen more commonly on the soft palate and uvula. The lesions can also be seen on the tonsils, posterior pharyngeal wall and the buccal mucosa.
Erythema, vesicles and ulcerating lesions in herpangina
Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis[20]
  • Oral cavity
  • Mucous membranes
  • Ulcers are common on lips, gums, throat, front of tongue, inside of the cheeks and roof of the mouth
  • Treatment is with antiviral agents such as Valacyclovir and Famciclovir

Herpes labialis - opryszczka wargowa.jpg

Oral Candidiasis
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Confirmatory tests rarely needed
Localized candidiasis

Invasive candidasis

Tongue infected with oral candidiasis - By James Heilman, MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, httpscommons.wikimedia.orgwindex.phpcurid=11717223.jpg


Disease Presentation Risk Factors Diagnosis Affected Organ Systems Important features Picture
Diseases predominantly affecting the oral cavity
Oral Candidiasis
  • Denture users
  • As a side effect of medication, most commonly having taken antibiotics. Inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of lung conditions (e.g, asthma or COPD) may also result in oral candidiasis which may be reduced by regularly rinsing the mouth with water after taking the medication.
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Confirmatory tests rarely needed
Localized candidiasis

Invasive candidasis

Tongue infected with oral candidiasis - By James Heilman, MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, httpscommons.wikimedia.orgwindex.phpcurid=11717223.jpg
Herpes simplex oral lesions
  • Stress
  • Recent URTI
  • Female sex
  • The symptoms of primary HSV infection generally resolve within two weeks
Oral herpes simplex infection - By James Heilman, MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, httpscommons.wikimedia.orgwindex.phpcurid=19051042.jpg
Aphthous ulcers
  • Painful, red spot or bump that develops into an open ulcer
  • Physical examination
  • Diagnosis of exclusion
  • Oral cavity
  • Self-limiting , Pain decreases in 7 to 10 days, with complete healing in 1 to 3 weeks
Apthous ulcer on the lower surface of the tongue - By Ebarruda - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, httpscommons.wikimedia.orgwindex.phpcurid=7903358
Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma - By Luca Pastore, Maria Luisa Fiorella, Raffaele Fiorella, Lorenzo Lo Muzio - http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/showImageLarge.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0050212.g001, CC BY 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15252632
Leukoplakia
  • Vulvar lesions occur independent of oral lesions
Leukoplakia - By Aitor III - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9873087
Melanoma
Oral melanoma - By Emmanouil K Symvoulakis, Dionysios E Kyrmizakis, Emmanouil I Drivas, Anastassios V Koutsopoulos, Stylianos G Malandrakis, Charalambos E Skoulakis and John G Bizakis - Symvoulakis et al. Head & Face Medicine 2006 2:7 doi:10.1186/1746-160X-2-7 (Open Access), [1], CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9839811
Fordyce spots
Fordyce spots - Por Perene - Obra do próprio, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19772899
Burning mouth syndrome
Torus palatinus
Torus palatinus - By Photo taken by dozenist, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=846591
Diseases involving oral cavity and other organ systems
Behcet's disease
Crohn's disease
Agranulocytosis
Syphilis[24]
Coxsackie virus
  • Symptomatic treatment
Coxsackie virus stomatitis - Adapted from Dermatology Atlas.[25]
Chicken pox
Chickenpox - By James Heilman, MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=52872565
Measles
  • Unvaccinated individuals[18][19]
  • Crowded and/or unsanitary conditions
  • Traveling to less developed and developing countries
  • Immunocompromized
  • Winter and spring seasons
  • Born after 1956 and never fully vaccinated
  • Health care workers

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